The ancient Roman city of Pompei (Pompei) is not far from the city of Naples (Napoli), in the region of Campania, at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. City was buried under a layer of ash and lava after the eruption of Vesuvius on August 24, 79 AD. Currently, the city is a large open-air museum and an important Italian landmark which in 1997 was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Pompeii is a unique place and a complete city, but without the people. The city has great historical value for Italy.
Pompeii was founded by mountainous tribes - Oski in the 6th century BC who had no idea how dangerous the volcano could be for people.
In the 4th century BC Pompeii became part of the Roman state. The city prospered and grew. The population of the city before the eruption was more than 25,000 people. In this wealthy and developed city there were beautiful houses made of limestone, fountains. Water was delivered to houses and fountains via pipes. In the second century BC, the city's economy flourished thanks to the trade of oil and wine. As a consequence of prosperity, construction of both public and private buildings began. Among the important public buildings there were built a large amphitheater that could accommodate almost the entire population of the city and the Odeon. Public buildings were constructed for the purpose of exalting the imperial power. All the buildings amaze with the highest level of fine art. They are decorated with magnificent frescoes, mosaics and statues.
A business center of the city was the Forum that occupied a large area which could accommodate the entire population of the city. Here meetings of the Board and ceremonies such as elections and solemn funerals took place.
The Basilica is the oldest building of the Forum which was the place of justice, but it also held entertaining and commercial meetings. The city had two theaters. A large theater was built in 200-150 BC and it could accommodate 5,000 people. Nowadays, you can see the lower part of the theater. It is covered with marble and was intended for important citizens.
Pompeii’s most ancient temple is the temple of Apollo dating back 575-550 BC. The temple is surrounded by 28 Corinthian columns. To the present day 2 columns were fully preserved.
In 62 AD there was a strong earthquake that destroyed almost all buildings in the city, but the city was quickly reconstructed.
On August 24, 79 AD the eruption of Mount Vesuvius began. From the beginning people did not pay attention to a big black cloud of ash and steam that rose above the volcano, because the volcano was considered asleep. After some time, the cloud covered the sky over the city, and the earth shocks shook the ground. The earthquake was very strong, and the stones were falling from the sky. In homes, the air was quickly filled with poisonous sulfur fumes and people died from suffocation. Many residents managed to leave the city, and only slaves remained who guarded the belongings of owners. But the next morning the eruption completely destroyed Pompeii and hid it under a layer of ash several meters thick.
The city was forgotten for 1,700 years until in the 16th century the famous architect Fontana found the remains of frescoes and a part of the wall. The very first excavations began in the 18th century.
Thermae of the 3rd century BC were discovered. There was also a lupanary (brothel) here, whose walls were decorated with pornographic scenes. During excavation, a large number of bakeries were found. In one of them 5 hand mills survived. Also shops for wool processing were excavated.
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